Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery is the surgical specialty of dentistry that concentrates on the aesthetics and function of the mouth, teeth, jaws, face, and associated structures. Training begins with four years of college, four more years of dental school, and an additional four or more years of hospital-based residency. The residency includes rotations in anesthesiology, emergency medicine, ENT, general surgery, internal medicine, plastic surgery and other medical specialty areas. Some residency programs also include a medical degree either during, or after the OMS residency program. The full scope of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery encompasses the diagnosis, surgical treatment, and related management of diseases, injuries and defects of the oral & maxillofacial region. This includes preventive, reconstructive and emergency care of the teeth, mouth, jaws and associated facial structures.